вторник, 10 октября 2017 г.

On Tyranny: Twenty Lessons from the Twentieth Century -2017 by Timothy Snyder


In politics, being deceived is no excuse.
—LESZEK KOŁAKOWSKI



1. Do not obey in advance.
2. Defend institutions.
3. Beware the one-party state.
4. Take responsibility for the face of the world.
5. Remember professional ethics.
6. Be wary of paramilitaries.
7. Be reflective if you must be armed.
8. Stand out.
9. Be kind to our language.
10. Believe in truth.
11 . Investigate.
12. Make eye contact and small talk.
13. Practice corporeal politics.
14. Establish a private life.
15. Contribute to good causes.
16. Learn from peers in other countries.
17. Listen for dangerous words.
18. Be calm when the unthinkable arrives.
19. Be a patriot.
20. Be as courageous as you can.

History does not repeat, but it does instruct. As the Founding Fathers debated our Constitution, they took instruction from the history they knew. Concerned that the democratic republic they envisioned would collapse, they contemplated the descent of ancient democracies and republics into oligarchy and empire. As they knew, Aristotle warned that inequality brought instability, while Plato believed that demagogues exploited free speech to install themselves as tyrants. In founding a democratic republic upon law and establishing a system of checks and balances, the Founding Fathers sought to avoid the evil that they, like the ancient philosophers, called tyranny. They had in mind the usurpation of power by a single individual or group, or the circumvention of law by rulers for their own benefit. Much of the succeeding political debate in the United States has concerned the problem of tyranny within American society: over slaves and women, for example.
It is thus a primary American tradition to consider history when our political order seems imperiled. If we worry today that the American experiment is threatened by tyranny, we can follow the example of the Founding Fathers and contemplate the history of other democracies and republics. The good news is that we can draw upon more recent and relevant examples than ancient Greece and Rome. The bad news is that the history of modern democracy is also one of decline and fall. Since the American colonies declared their independence from a British monarchy that the Founders deemed “tyrannical,” European history has seen three major democratic moments: after the First World War in 1918, after the Second World War in 1945, and after the end of communism in 1989. Many of the democracies founded at these junctures failed, in circumstances that in some important respects resemble our own.
History can familiarize, and it can warn. In the late nineteenth century, just as in the late twentieth century, the expansion of global trade generated expectations of progress. In the early twentieth century, as in the early twenty-first, these hopes were challenged by new visions of mass politics in which a leader or a party claimed to directly represent the will of the people. European democracies collapsed into right-wing authoritarianism and fascism in the 1920s and ’30s. The communist Soviet Union, established in 1922, extended its model into Europe in the 1940s. The European history of the twentieth century shows us that societies can break, democracies can fall, ethics can collapse, and ordinary men can find themselves standing over death pits with guns in their hands. It would serve us well today to understand why.
Both fascism and communism were responses to globalization: to the real and perceived inequalities it created, and the apparent helplessness of the democracies in addressing them. Fascists rejected reason in the name of will, denying objective truth in favor of a glorious myth articulated by leaders who claimed to give voice to the people. They put a face on globalization, arguing that its complex challenges were the result of a conspiracy against the nation. Fascists ruled for a decade or two, leaving behind an intact intellectual legacy that grows more relevant by the day. Communists ruled for longer, for nearly seven decades in the Soviet Union, and more than four decades in much of eastern Europe. They proposed rule by a disciplined party elite with a monopoly on reason that would guide society toward a certain future according to supposedly fixed laws of history.
We might be tempted to think that our democratic heritage automatically protects us from such threats. This is a misguided reflex. In fact, the precedent set by the Founders demands that we examine history to understand the deep sources of tyranny, and to consider the proper responses to it. Americans today are no wiser than the Europeans who saw democracy yield to fascism, Nazism, or communism in the twentieth century. Our one advantage is that we might learn from their experience. Now is a good time to do so.
This book presents twenty lessons from the twentieth century, adapted to the circumstances of today.


Комментариев нет:

Отправить комментарий

Поиск по этому блогу

Архив блога

Tags

2018 World Cup 3D reading активная грамматика активное слушание активный словарный запас Апресян аудирование Гивенталь деловой английский детский английский интернет-радио контекстный перевод межкультурная коммуникация мобильное интернет-ТВ модальные глаголы мультсериал НБАРС Облако-Mail.ru параллельные тексты подкасты полнотекстовый поиск понимание просмотр фильмов на английском с опорой на словари прямой эфир разговорники рассылка расширение активного словарного запаса речевые модели скайп-тренинг словари слушание Современные записки Влада В. ссылки недели статистика Permlive Radio ТВ онлайн тематический словарь трехмерное чтение учебные материалы электронные книги на английском энциклопедии AAC+ academic vocabulary active dictionaries active English active grammar active vocabulary advanced examples advanced grammar advanced patterns advanced vocabulary adventure film Agatha Christie Al Jazeera Alain de Botton Alan Milne Alexander Pushkin Alreader Altai Amara.org Amazon Video american cinema american culture American English american history american life American literature american politics American radio american tv Ancient Aliens Andrey Kneller Android animation Anton Chekhov Archive.org art ATOM audiobooks ballet Barak Obama basic active vocabulary BBC BBC English BBC Four BBC Learning English BBC News BBC One BBC podcasts BBC radio BBC REEL BBC Three BBC TV BBC Two BBC World BBC World Service Radio beginners Benedict Cumberbatch Big Soviet Encyclopedia Bloomberg Bolshoi Booker Prize Boris Akunin Boris Pasternak brainpickings.org Britannica british cinema British council british english british history British literature British TV Brockhaus business business english cambridge Cambridge Business Cambridge Learner's Dictionary English-Russian Career English CBBC CBC CBeebies CBS Central America Channel 4 Chekhov Chernikhovskaya chick-lit children China Christmas Cicero citizen journalism civilisation Click CNBC CNN coaching Collins Collins Cobuild collocations Columbia encyclopedia comedy-drama Constance Garnett context dictionary courses culture design detective story dictionaries dictionary Doctor Who donation to Russian World Citizens Project dramatizations DW ebooks ebooks in English elibrary email-рассылка Encarta encyclopedia English Club TV English language english subtitles entertainment ereader errors ESL ESL audio ESL Links ESL video Eugene Onegin Eurasianism Euronews examples exams Extra English Facebook Live fantasy fascism fb2 fiction in English Files of the week Filmon.TV Films films in English with english subtitles Flipboard folklore food Fox news Fox TV France France 24 french-english podcasts frequency Friends Fyodor Dostoevsky Gagarin Radio Game of thrones global issues Glosbe Goldendict Google dictionary google translate grammar patterns Hamatata.com happiness HBO highlights of the year 2011 history History channel ideas idioms IELTS India innovation Intercultural RU-EN Intercultural RU-EN 24 Intercultural Ru-EN LIVE Intercultural RU-EN Youtube Channel Intercultural Youtube News Mix intermediate vocabulary internet radio iOS IPTV IT Italian literature ITV J.H.Lowenfeld James Falen Jane Austen Jesus job interview Joseph Brodsky journalism kids Kindle Kindle Paperwhite Kiwix learner's dictionaries Leo Tolstoy Lingualeo Linguee Lingvo Links List.ly listening literature live radio Live TV London Live TV Longman Longman Business m3u machine translation Macmillan Magicscope Magicscope PermLIVE Match-Point media coach Merriam-Webster Metacritic Michele Berdy Mikhail Bulgakov mistakes mobi mobile dictionaries Mobile films mobile podcasts Mobile TV Mosfilm motoring mp3 courses MSNBC multimedia Multiran musical Natural grammar NBC Netflix neural translation News English News with subtitles Nikolai Gogol Nobel Lecture nonfiction NPR OED Omdaru radio Omdaru TV online films in English online TV Open Russia opera Ororo.tv Osip Mandelstam Oxford Oxford Business Oxford Learner's Wordfinder Dictionary Oxford Living English Dictionaries parallel texts PBS Permlive Internet Radio Project Permlive radio PermLIVE.Info Permlive.TV World Magazine Pevear-Volokhonsky philosophy phrasal verbs phrase books podcasts podster.fm Political novel Portable positive psychology presentations project management propaganda psychology Public Folder Putinism quotations radio radio in English Reuters TV Reverso Context Richard Pipes Robert Harris Roman Empire RSS Russia Russia in English Russia Today Russian russian cinema russian collocations russian culture russian history russian jews Russian language Russian literature Russian music russian nationalism Russian poetry russian politics russian radio russian revolution russian subtitles russian TV russian usage Russian World Citizens Live TV russian-english audibooks russian-english dictionary russian-english parallel texts russian-english phrase books russian-english translation russian-german podcasts sci-fi science Shakespeare Sherlock Siberia Simple English sitcom Sky News slang Slow TV Sophie Kinsella soviet art soviet cinema soviet history soviet music Soviet Union spanish cinema speech patterns spy thriller Stalin stalinism Stephen Fry Student News subasub.com subscribe.ru supernatural Svetlana Alexievich Svetlanov synonyms Taiga Tarkovsky Tatoeba-предложения в переводе Tchaikovsky Tcherniakov technology TED Telegram Terry Gross The Great Soviet Encyclopedia The Master and Margarita The Moscow Times The New York Review of Books The New York Times The News The Philosopher's Mail The Russian World Citizens Times The School of life thematic dictionary thesaurus This American life thriller time travel TOEFL Tolstoy Torrent TV torrents training translation translations trumpism TV documentaries TV in English TV series tyranny UK TV Live Universalis Urban Dictionary usage USSR Vasabi.tv Vice News video Video News visual dictionary visual grammar Vladislav Vorobev VOA Learning English VOA special English vocabulary.com VPN Wikipedia wikitaxi Windows Winnie-the-Pooh Wordnet WorkAudioBook-audioplayer with subtitles World News Yourmuze.FM Youtube